1.The Earth’s rotation is gradually slowing.
2.The Earth was once believed to be the centre of the universe,but this is not the case.
3.Earth has a powerful magnetic field this is due to nickel-iron core which coupled with its rapid rotation. This field also protects the Earth from the effects of solar wind.
4.Moon is the only one natural satellite of the Earth.
5.Earth is the only planet not named after a god.
6.The Earth is the densest planet in the Solar System and average density of the Earth is approximately 5.52 grams per cubic centimetre.
7.Mercury and Venus are the only two planets in our solar system that do not have any moons.
8.If a star passes too close to a black hole, it can be torn apart.
9.Venus is the hottest planet in our solar system. but most of us think ,it would be Mercury, as its the closest planet to the sun. This is because Venus has a lot of gasses in its atmosphere, which causes the “Greenhouse Effect”.
10.Our solar system is around 5 billion years old and Scientist estimated that it will probably last another 5000 million years
11.One of Saturn’s smaller moons Enceladus, reflects about 90% of the sunlight,which making it more reflective than snow!
12.The highest mountain known to man is the Olympus Mons, which is located on Mars. It’s peak is 25Km high, making it nearly 3 times higher than Mount Everest.
13.The Whirlpool Galaxy (M51) was the very first celestial object to be identified as being spiral.
14.Light year is the distance covered by light in a single year, this is equivalent 9.5 trillion Km.
15.Width of the Milky Way is around 100,000 light years.
16.Sun is about 300,000 times larger than Earth.
17.Footprints left by astronauts on the moon will stay there forever as there is no wind to blow them away.
18.Scientists believe there are 67 moons that orbit Jupiter, however only 53 of these have been named.
19.Sun makes one full rotation in every 25-35 days.
20.Venus is the only planet that spins backwards relative to the other planets.
21.The force of gravity can sometimes cause comets to tear apart.
22.Sun and moon’s gravity Cause high and low tides.
23.Pluto is smaller than the Earth’s moon.
24.There are more volcanoes on Venus than any other planet within our solar system.
25.Jupiter, Neptune, Saturn and Uranus are four planets in our solar system that are known as gas giants.
26. Saturn’s moon Titan has plenty of evidence of organic (life) chemicals in its atmosphere.
27. Life is known to exist only on Earth, but in 1986 NASA found what they thought might be fossils of microscopic living things in a rock from Mars.
28. Most scientists say life’s basic chemicals formed on the Earth but it might came from space.
29.Oxygen is circulated around the helmet in space suits in order to prevent the visor from misting.
30.The middle layers of space suits are blown up like a balloon to press against the astronaut’s body. Without this pressure, the astronaut’s body would boil.
31.The gloves included in the space suit have silicon rubber fingertips which allow the astronaut some sense of touch.
32.The Milky Way galaxy is whirling rapidly, spinning our sun and all its other stars at around 100 million km per hour.
33.Sun travels around the galaxy once every 200 million years – a journey of 100,000 light years.
34.There may be a huge black hole in the middle of the most of the galaxies.
35.The Universe may have neither a centre nor an edge, because according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, gravity bends all of space time around into an endless curve.
36.The swirling gases around a black hole turn it into an electrical generator, making it spout jets of electricity billions of kilometers out into space.
37.The opposite of black holes are estimated to be white holes which spray out matter and light like fountains(But not find one).
38. A day in Mercury lasts approximately as long as 59 days on earth.
39. Twice during Mercury’s orbit, it gets so close to the Sun and speeds so much that the Sun seems to go backwards in the sky.
40. Nicolaus Copernicus was the astronomer who first suggested that the Sun was the centre, and that the Earth went round the sun.
41.When Neil Armstrong stepped on the Moon for the first time, he said these famous words: “That’s one small step for a man; one giant leap for mankind.”
42.During the moon landing, a mirror was left on the Moon’s surface to reflect a laser beam which measured the Moon’s distance from the Earth with amazing accuracy.
43.The stars in each constellation are named after a Greek alphabet.
44. The brightest star in each constellation is called the Alpha Star, the next brightest Beta, and so on.
45. A comet’s tail is made as it nears the Sun and begins to melt. A vast plume of gas millions of kilometers across is blown out behind by the solar wind. The tail is what you see, shining as the sunlight catches it.
46. The Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet smashed into Jupiter in July 1994, with the biggest crash ever witnessed.
47. The red color of Mars is due to oxidized (rusted) iron in its soil.
48. Planets have magnetic field around them because of the liquid iron in their cores. As the planets rotate, so the iron swirls, generating electric currents that create the magnetic field.
49. Earth’s atmosphere is the only atmosphere discovered till date that human can breathe in.
50.Earth’s atmosphere was formed from gases pouring out from volcanoes.
51.Jupiter has no surface for a spacecraft to land on because it is made mostly from helium gas and hydrogen. The massive pull of Jupiter’s gravity squeezes the hydrogen so hard that it is liquid.
52.Jupiter spins right round in less than 10 hours which means that the planet’s surface is moving at nearly 50,000 km/hr.
53.The first successful planetary space probe was the USA’s Mariner 2, which flew past Venus in 1962.
54.It’s believed that it was the impact of a big meteorite may have chilled the earth and wiped out all the dinosaurs.
55.Three moons have yet been found to have their own moons: Saturn’s moon Titan, Jupiter’s Lo, and Neptune’s Triton.
56.The largest moon in the Solar System is the Jupiter’s moon Ganymede.
57. Saturn is not solid, but is made almost entirely of gas – mostly liquid hydrogen and helium.
58. Winds ten times stronger than a hurricane on Earth swirl around Saturn’s equator reaching up to 1100 km/h – and they never let up: even for a moment.
59. The first space station was the Soviet Salyut 1 launched in April 1971; its low orbit meant it stayed up only five months.
60. In April 2001, Dennis Tito became the first space tourist, ferried up to the ISS by the Russian Soyuz space shuttle.
61. Einstein’s theory of general relativity shows that gravity not only pulls on matter, but also space and even ‘Time’ itself.
62. With powerful telescopes, astronomers can see galaxies 2 billion light years away. This means we see them as they were when the only life forms in Earth were bacteria.
63. The slowest rotating planet is Venus, which takes 243.01 days to turn around.
64. The fastest spinning objects in the Universe are neutron stars – these can rotate 500 times in just 1 second.
65. In Uranus ,in summer the sun does not set for 20 years. In winter, darkness lasts for 20 years. In autumn, the sun rises and sets every 9 hours.
66.Uranus’s moon Miranda is the weirdest moon of all. It seems to have been blasted apart, and then put together again.
67.Solar flares reach temperatures of 10 million °C and have the energy of a million atom bombs.
68.True binary stars are two stars held together by one another’s gravity, which spend their lives whirling around together like a pair of dancers.
69.Ceres is the biggest asteroid in the Solar System – 940 km across, and 0.0002% the size of the earth.
70.Neptune’s mood Triton is the coldest place in the Solar System, with surface temperatures of -236°C.
71. The Pioneer 10 and 11 probes carry metal plaques with messages for aliens telling them about us.
72.Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity (1905) shows that all measurements are relative, including time and speed. In other words, time and speed depends upon where you measure them.
73. Weightlessness makes astronauts grow several centimeters during a long mission.
74. The first living creature in space was the dog Laika on – board Sputnik 2 in 1957. Sadly, she died when the spacecraft’s oxygen supply ran out.
75. The heart of a star reaches 16 million °C. A grain of sand this hot would kill someone 150 km away.
76. Stars twinkle because we see them through the wafting of the atmosphere.
77. The sun gets hot because it is so big that the pressure in its core is so tremendous – enough to force the nuclei of hydrogen atoms to fuse to make helium atoms. This nuclear reaction is like a gigantic atom bomb and it releases huge amounts of heat.
78. The nuclear fusion reactions in the Sun’s core send out billions of light photons every minute but they take 10 million years to reach its surface.
79. The Hiroshima bombs released 84 trillion joules of energy. A supernova releases 125,000 trillion trillion times as such.
80. The most distant galaxies (quasars) have red shifts(When light waves from distant galaxies are stretched out his way, they look redder. This is called red shift) so big that they must be moving away from us at speeds approaching the speed of light.
81.The moon’s gravity is 17% of the Earth’s so astronauts in space suits can jump 4 m high on the moon.
82. On the moon’s surface are large dark patches called seas – because this is what people once believed they were. They are, in fact, lava flows from ancient volcanoes.
83.The brightest stars in the night sky are not actually stars, but the planets Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Mercury.
84.Jupiter’s moon Europa may have oceans of water beneath its dry surface and it is a major target in the search for life in the Solar System.
85.There may be 20 trillion galaxies in the Universe.
86.Galaxies are often found in a group or clusters. One cluster may have 30 or so galaxies in it.
87.The Milky Way belongs to a cluster of 30 galaxies called the Local Group, which is 7 million light years across.
88.The Virgo Cluster is 50 million light years away and is made up of 1000 galaxies.
89.When a spacecraft reaches 140% of the orbital velocity i.e. 11.2 km/sec, it is going fast enough to break free of the Earth’s gravity. This is called escape velocity.
90.Saturn’s rings are sets of thin rings of ice, dust and tiny rocks, which orbit the planet around its equator.
91.A tablespoon of neutron star would weigh about ten billion tones.
92.The earth actually takes 365.24219 days to orbit the Sun, which is called one Solar Year. To compensate for the missing 0.242 days, the western calendar adds an extra day in February every fourth (leap) year, but misses out three leap years every four centuries.
93.X-Rays cannot reach the earth’s atmosphere, so astronomers can only detect them using space telescopes such as ROSAT.
94.The Sun has sunspots, the dark spots on the Sun’s surface, 2000°C cooler than the rest of the surface.
95.Dishes in the space telescopes have to be made accurate two billionths of a millimeter.
96.we can see another galaxy with the naked eye: the Andromeda Galaxy, 2.2 million light years away.
97.Dried up riverbeds show that Mars probably once had water in its surface. There is sometimes ice at the poles and maybe water underground.
98.For a satellite to fly off into the space, its momentum should be greater than the pull of gravity of the earth.
99.The future of the Universe may depend on how much dark matter there is. If there is too much, its gravity will eventually stop the Universe’s expansion – and make it shrink again.
100.If you put Saturn in water it would float,as its density is only about 0.687 g/cm3 while the density of water is 0.998g/cm3.